22 But ye are come unto mount Sion, and unto the city of the living God, the heavenly Jerusalem, and to an innumerable company of angels,
23 To the general assembly and church of the firstborn, which are written in heaven, and to God the Judge of all, and to the spirits of just men made perfect,
24 And to Jesus the mediator of the new covenant, and to the blood of sprinkling, that speaketh better things than that of Abel.
25 See that ye refuse not him that speaketh. For if they escaped not who refused him that spake on earth, much more shall not we escape, if we turn away from him that speaketh from heaven:
26 Whose voice then shook the earth: but now he hath promised, saying, Yet once more I shake not the earth only, but also heaven.
27 And this word, Yet once more, signifieth the removing of those things that are shaken, as of things that are made, that those things which cannot be shaken may remain.
28 Wherefore we receiving a kingdom which cannot be moved, let us have grace, whereby we may serve God acceptably with reverence and godly fear:
29 For our God is a consuming fire. KJV
In “A Time Of Trumpets Part Five, Flames of Fire” we ended in the middle of the above scriptural reference in Hebrews. Let us now go on to the rest of this magnificent text that reveals to us what a grand and sacred place our Lord has brought us to.
In this time of the Seventh Trumpet of God sounding forth into our being and blowing an alarm into our spirits, may we continue in our study in an attitude of sober vigilance, filled with awe and wonder at what has been in our midst all along but is now declaring itself and manifesting its substance and glory to a people that have been chosen and predestinated to hear this great call. As we continue commenting on the passages of Hebrews 12:22-29, I would like for you to notice something very important and eye-opening for us concerning this governmental realm that Mt Zion is representing to us. Mt Zion is the seat of God’s government and is the highest place that a believer can ascend into the glory of The Mighty God. Notice that there are certain elements that the writer of the Book of Hebrews describes as being in this highest Mount of God’s Presence and then notice that these same elements are those that small minded men and women today are trying to convince God’s people are no longer needed or even relevant for those that are ascending into their I AMness. One element that is under an agenda of discrediting is JUDGMENT. The other element, believe it or not, is JESUS HIMSELF. The third element that is under attack today by those that are systematically trying to destroy the truth of it in the hearts of the Kingdom believers is THE BLOOD. As you can readily see, all of these so-called “old belief systems and outdated elements of truth” are described as being right there in the Holy of Holies of Mt Zion! For many centuries there has been an agenda that means to try to wrestle the reality of Jesus the Christ of God out of the minds and hearts of God’s people. From the Early Church onward, there have been movements that have attempted to make Jesus into a grand MYTH, created by the religious institutions of long ago, which somehow (according to them) were able to create an idea of a man called Jesus, which became a false religion called Christianity. Again, this is not a new agenda and this agenda is now seeing a revival once again in our times, which is trying to remove from the Kingdom believers the reality that Jesus is indeed the Son of God and was sent to earth to be birthed by a Virgin. We will address these concerns later in this study, but for now, let us go through these significant scriptures.
And to God the Judge of all.
I pray that all who read this writing are mindful of the fact that every man, woman and child will be judged by God in the ages to come. Judgment is an eternal element of God’s relationship with humanity and is absolutely necessary in order for mankind to be changed and transfigured. God’s judgment is not unto condemnation. God’s judgment is righteous and transforming for all that come under its life-giving discernment. God’s righteous judgment is to be sought after, not avoided. The Greek word used mostly for judgment is “Krisis”, from which we get our English word, “Crisis.” It means a decision that brings about justice. Other references for the word “judgment or judge” has to do with “discernment” which means to make a difference between two things. Judgment is discerning between two things and making a distinction that “judges” between the two things and reveals truth, which brings justice. This can best be seen in the first chapter of Genesis.
1 In the beginning God created the Heaven and the earth.
2 And the earth was without form, and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters.
3 And God said, Let there be light: and there was light.
4 And God saw the light, that it was good: and God divided the light from the darkness.
5 And God called the light Day, and the darkness he called Night. And the evening and the morning were the first day. KJV
When God first created the heavens and the earth they were without form and void, without distinction or discernment. Then, the spirit of God moved upon this conglomeration and began to “judge” its formless existence and through that judgment came forth the decree, “LET THERE BE LIGHT!” Now, there was a distinction made between that which was of The Light and that which was of The Darkness and God set apart the Light from the Darkness so that each was readily discerned to be different from one another. Throughout the remaining days of creation, God is seen to “divide” one thing from another thing, making a distinction from one element of creation from another element so that the heavens and the earth were given form and substance. So it is that today in our gathering into Christ, we must and will be judged by God, the Judge of All, so that we can begin to have a distinction made in our hearts and lives between that which is of corruptible man and those things that are of God. Without that judgment of discernment, we will continually be found in a formless state and condition, without any substance and distinction. The New Age Agenda today is to do away with that distinction, between flesh and spirit, humanity and God, good and evil. The aim and desire of these that rail against the foundational truths of Christ is to dumb down these pure elements of Truth into a mishmash of generalized concepts that try to deceive us into thinking that we are our own Creator and we are the only authority in our life. They teach that it is through our own efforts of gaining a "higher consciousness" that brings us to an enlightened state which reveals to us that we are the "I AM." They don't want God's judgments because those judgments would "discern" between flesh and spirit, revealing what is truly God and what is truly flesh. Our desire is to be judged! Through that judgment we will then be revealed to be the offspring of God Almighty, the children of His loins and heirs to the estate of Jesus Christ, our elder Brother. God's judgments are meant to reveal the True Source of our being, our Father God, which in turn will bring us into union with His divine Self and make of us "One New Man." We were made very distinctive in our beginnings, “in the image and likeness of God” but through the influence of this corruptible nature we have lost our distinction as being OF GOD! God’s judgment will bring that distinction back into our being and we will begin to take on His substance and character, which will begin to divide us from death and darkness and reveal in us Life and Light. May God’s spirit begin to move upon the face of our deep and begin to judge us as the children of the Most High God!
And to the spirits of just men made perfect.
This particular portion of this narrative is especially rich with meaning and truth for those that have had their spiritual senses fully exercised to “read behind the lines” of the scriptures. This is what the Seventh Trumpet of God is bringing us into the midst of dear saints of God and I pray that this truth will open our eyes to the depths and heights of this awesome place in God that we have been allowed to experience. Without the judgment of the Judge of All, no man could possibly be given the opportunity to fellowship and minister with such an austere company of Messengers as the writer of the Book to the Hebrews is describing here. We have come to “the spirits” of a company of “men”, which denotes that this is speaking of those that have laid their bodies down and have come into their “house from heaven.” These are those that have crossed over the river of Jordan (death) and have now become the "great cloud of witnesses" that Hebrews 11:39 - 12:2 speaks of.
39 And these all, having obtained a good report through faith, received not the promise:
40 God having provided some better thing for us, that they without us should not be made perfect.
12 Wherefore seeing we also are compassed about with so great a cloud of witnesses, let us lay aside every weight, and the sin which doth so easily beset us, and let us run with patience the race that is set before us,
2 Looking unto Jesus the author and finisher of our faith; who for the joy that was set before him endured the cross, despising the shame, and is set down at the right hand of the throne of God. KJV
I want us to take our time in mining this wondrous place that Hebrews reveals we have come into. We need to discuss each word and see it in its relative relationship with the successive terms used here. First, let us look at the word "spirits." It is a plurality of the Greek word "pneuma" which is the word for SPIRIT, whether it is God's spirit, or man's spirit, or the spirit of the adversary, all of these identities are known in the scriptures as PNEUMA. The soul is the Greek word, PSUCHE, from which we draw our English word for PSYCHE and is identified in the King James scriptures as SOUL. It is significant for us that these SPIRITS are identified as MEN! They are not angels or cherubim or any other heavenly creature or entity but are designated as MEN, meaning that these are those that have been born of a woman, lived an earthly existence and have now come into a state that is predominantly SPIRIT. I say "predominantly" because if they are those "born of a woman" then they have a soul and a body, but they have been identified as SPIRIT, which is now ruling and governing over all of their other parts. These are not "ghosts", wandering spirits that are stuck between heaven and earth, but they are living spirits, a company of spirits that are united in Christ. These are those that have run the race, finished their course and are now seated in the grandstand of heaven, cheering us on to the finish line of God's great plan. The grave is not the end, dear brother and sister, it is only the end of the flesh and blood body that we have lived in while in this earthly existence. The spirit lives on and WE live on, having crossed over the border between earth and heaven. There is LIFE on both sides of the river and those two realms are drawing ever closer to each other. I have often looked at the following scripture in the Book of Daniel and gained understanding as to how this glorious relationship between the two realms of the seen and unseen jointly operate.
4 And in the four and twentieth day of the first month, as I was by the side of the great river, which is Hiddekel;
5 Then I lifted up mine eyes, and looked, and behold a certain man clothed in linen, whose loins were girded with fine gold of Uphaz:
6 His body also was like the beryl, and his face as the appearance of lightning, and his eyes as lamps of fire, and his arms and his feet like in colour to polished brass, and the voice of his words like the voice of a multitude.
5 Then I Daniel looked, and, behold, there stood other two, the one on this side of the bank of the river, and the other on that side of the bank of the river.
6 And one said to the man clothed in linen, which was upon the waters of the river, How long shall it be to the end of these wonders?
7 And I heard the man clothed in linen, which was upon the waters of the river, when he held up his right hand and his left hand unto heaven, and sware by him that liveth for ever that it shall be for a time, times, and an half; and when he shall have accomplished to scatter the power of the holy people, all these things shall be finished.
The "great river, which is Hiddekel" refers to the 3rd river that flows out from Eden (Paradise), the Tigris. It's name means "a sharp sound or voice" and because of the swiftness of the waters it is also identified with "an arrow." For me, it is significant because of the sound of the Trumpet I am hearing today, a sound of a sharp alarm being blown by the seventh Messenger of God. It is important for us to understand that when we read the words, "A MAN" in the scriptures, it doesn't necessarily mean a single individual, but rather a company of men that have been joined together as a single entity, such as the Corporate Man in Christ. Daniel sees a "certain man", not just a man, but one of certainty, with a significant and remarkable distinction about him, an appointed and qualified MAN. We know that this MAN is distinctive and highly appointed because he is clothed in linen, the apparel of the PRIESTHOOD. Furthermore, Daniel describes his appearance as one that is no longer earthy, but a spiritual man, whose body, face, eyes, arms and feet have been given attributes that speak of Divinity and Fire and Lightning. Notice how similar this MAN is to the one that John sees in the Book of The Revelation.
12 And I turned to see the voice that spake with me. And being turned, I saw seven golden candlesticks;
13 And in the midst of the seven candlesticks one like unto the Son of man, clothed with a garment down to the foot, and girt about the paps with a golden girdle.
14 His head and his hairs were white like wool, as white as snow; and his eyes were as a flame of fire;
15 And his feet like unto fine brass, as if they burned in a furnace; and his voice as the sound of many waters.
16 And he had in his right hand seven stars: and out of his mouth went a sharp twoedged sword: and his countenance was as the sun shineth in his strength. KJV
Ah yes, I think we know this MAN as having the appearance of the Son of man, a Corporate Expression of Christ, made up of those that have walked through the fire and availed themselves to the transforming judgments of God that have transfigured them into the express image of their Lord and Captain, Jesus Christ. These are the Overcomers that sit in the throne with Christ, the Gold of God's nature and character that have come forth as PURE AND UNDEFILED. I love it when the scriptures confirm and witness to one another that we are indeed reading of the same subject because they are made up of the same elements and imagery. This MAN CLOTHED IN LINEN begins to show Daniel things that are to come, which at times causes Daniel to lose his strength and fall to the ground like a dead man, just like John did many times throughout his visionary revelation. Do not think, my friend, that you have been in this place before and that you can just saunter into this dimension with a careless attitude. This realm is where death and life exist and the Holiness of the Presence of the Mighty God will bring all men to their knees with terror and fear. There are places in our path in Christ where we can kick up our heels, shout and dance, but there are other places where silence and stillness are demanded because of the soberness of the visitation. I have known both of these protocols and have learned the difference between the two. In the cases of Daniel and John, there is a lot of weakness and fainting going on because of the immensity of the visitation. Finally, Daniel's vision reaches a point where he looks and "behold there stood other two, the one on this side of the bank of the river, and the other on that side of the bank of the river." Now we see a scenario where there is a description of two MEN, one on one side of the river and one on the other side of the river. Notice, these MEN are not wearing any priestly garments, nor are they seen as having the same attributes as the MAN in linen. The river is, of course, the dimension between the seen and the unseen, that place where the MAN in linen finds himself as being in the middle of both the earth realm and the heavenly realm. Yet, because the MAN in linen is described as a MAN, we know that he has come from the earthly side of the river and because of his attributes of Divinity, we know that he has been seated in heavenly places, but at this point of time in his ministry, he no longer belongs to either realm, earth or heaven. He is a NEW MAN, a NEW THING in the annals of ministry. He has been positioned in the MIDDLE OF THE RIVER, which is to say that he has been positioned between EARTH AND HEAVEN. I pray you can see this in your spirit as I am seeing it. Where is this 7th Trumpet being blown by the 7th Messenger bringing us to? Well, it's not taking us to heaven and it isn't positioning us in earth and yet it is bringing us to the place where we will minister to both realms equally, a King/Priest ministry that will change both sides of the river at the same time. Glory! The Word of the Lord is being ministered to both heaven and earth by the Melchizedek Priesthood that is bringing the word of change to both sides, for both sides are in need of CHANGE! In the scriptures listed above, Hebrews 11:39-40, we see an interesting and enlightening reality.
39 And these all, having obtained a good report through faith, received not the promise:
40 God having provided some better thing for us, that they without us should not be made perfect.
Now, according to this scripture, those that have finished their course in the earthly life thus far have not "received the promise", because God has provided some better, or greater thing for US, that THEY without US should not be MADE PERFECT. Notice the word "MADE" here, as it implies a process of being brought from one state and condition into another state and condition. We are not to think that just because we lay our bodies down that at that point the work of salvation and restoration stops. It continues on, throughout the ages, whether in this earthly body or without this earthly body, the wondrous grace and love of Jesus Christ continues to change His creation into the image and likeness of their Heavenly Father. We have come to a place right now where those clouds of witnesses and all of heaven are on tiptoe, peering into this earthly dimension to see the magnificent procession of a chosen First Fruits being drawn away from the bank of earthly existence into the middle of the river to join their Elder Brother, Jesus, and to begin to minister a Word that transcends the dimensions of heaven and earth, ministering Life to both sides of the river at the same time, a Word that shakes BOTH heaven and earth! (Hebrews 12:26) These are those that have laid down their own lives and have been reborn into an endless life that is the very life of their Father. They are NOW BECOMING that Whole New Man! Notice that we are not waiting for a time to come for this to begin. We are RIGHT NOW in the midst of this change! The correct language for our involvement in the plan of God at this time is present - continuing. We are NOW-BECOMING all that the Father has for us to be. Not waiting for this change to come to us, but realizing that it is in our midst NOW and it is a CONTINUING PRIESTHOOD, constantly moving in us and bringing us to heights and depths in God that we have never experienced before. Some would like to say that it is in our midst and we are no longer in need of any further development or purifying, but that is a carnal desire to cut the work of the Lord short and to bring an end to any further proving of their faith. Our carnal mind wants to drive a stake down and declare IT IS FINISHED, but our spiritual man knows that this is an ongoing process of bringing sons into glory. We cannot afford to settle for less than what the Lord has purposed for us to be. Creation is groaning and travailing to see this manifestation of a NEW MAN in the middle of the river, speaking and creating new life in heaven and earth. God is faithful over all the works of His hands and He will not let us sit down and stop the work of the spirit in our lives. That is what the 7th Trumpet is sounding into our land, the fact that it is not the time for complacency and apathy but a time to awake and gather into Him to hear a new sound and be changed. The First Fruits are going to be dealt with in this gathering like never before. God is tearing down our high places of pride and arrogance and giving us the spirit of grace and humility. We cannot minister from the middle of the river until all the fruits of the flesh have been made null and void. The Lord God is not going to have any vessels of expression in this holy place that still have a lust for money, or fame, or celebrity, or titles, or ego. They will not be self-serving, making it all about themselves but they are and will continue to be servants of the Most High.
Daniel saw this "man in linen" in the middle of the river and, lo and behold, one of the men on the banks of the river cried out a question, "HOW LONG SHALL IT BE TO THE END OF THESE WONDERS?" We don't have to wonder very long as to which bank this plaintive cry came from. It was from the earthly bank, because the earthly man will always ask God this very question, "HOW LONG?" For the earthly man, it is always a matter of WHEN. Like little children in the back of the car on a long trip asking every 5 minutes, "Are we there yet? Are we there yet? Are we there yet?" and no matter how many times the parent tries to assure them that they are on their way and they will get there in time, the only thing children think about is "HOW LONG?" For the mature son of God, time is not of the essence. It doesn't matter HOW LONG? for them, as each moment is a glorious ascension from glory to glory and heaven to heaven. For the earthly, NOW is all that matters, but for the man in heaven, IT IS NOW and IT IS CONTINUING! For the man in the middle of the river, the answer given is an indeterminate amount of time, but a solemn oath and promise is made that these wonders will not stop until God has accomplished what He wants to accomplish in heaven and earth and not a micro-second before! In other words, "Be quiet and enjoy the ride!" God is at work! His plan is unfolding and we are on time and on course. Don't let our fleshly mind bring us into a state of frustration and impatience in our progressive journey to wholeness and completion. Be assured that down in the depths of our being great reparations are being worked and although we don't have an exterior evidence of these things being done, we have the assurance of the spirit of the Lord in our hearts that witnesses to us these things are indeed now being done and will continue to their finality.
Let us reconcile the 2 scriptures that we are looking at, Hebrews 11:40 (that they without us should not be made perfect) and Hebrews 12:22 (And to the spirits of just men made perfect.) Perfection here is not be seen as a finished man, but as a man that has individually attained a maturity in his faith in Christ. One must always keep in mind the 2 fold action of redemption and salvation that takes place within the economy of God's Great Salvation Plan. First, it is an individual salvation, with each person coming into an intimate and personal relationship with Christ which begins the process of union, regeneration and growth in the nature and character of Christ. The second action is the universal salvation of the entire creation of God, where the individual salvation is used to act as a mirror of God's glory shining forth from within their being, which shines forth into creation, which as it looks upon this glory is initiated into the transforming power of the risen Christ Jesus. Perfection is not a state of being without sin. Notice what the scriptures say of Noah.
9 These are the generations of Noah: Noah was a just man and perfect in his generations, and Noah walked with God. KJV
A "just man and perfect in his generations." Surely this does not mean Noah was a manifested son of God! Instead it means that he had attained to a state of relationship with God where he was justified in God's love for him and perfect or complete in his generational lineage. Noah was the product of a just and righteous lineage, which is why God saved him and his seed from destruction. Perfection deals with maturity and especially in the New Testament it deals with the maturity of a Christian lifestyle and relationship with Jesus Christ. Adam Clarke's Commentary gives an interesting commentary on "the spirits of just men made perfect" from the Jewish point of view.
[The spirits of just men made perfect] We cannot understand these terms without the assistance of Jewish phraseology. The Jews divide mankind into three classes:
1. The JUST PERFECT, ( tsadiqiym gmuwriym)
2. The wicked perfect, (resha±iym gmuwriym)
.3. Those between both, (beynowniyim)
1. The just perfect are those,
a. Who have conquered all brutal appetites and gross passions.
b. Who have stood in the time of strong temptation.
c. Who give alms with a sincere heart.
d. Who worship the true God only.
e. Who are not invidious.
f. Those from whom God has taken (yetser hara±) , evil concupiscence, and given (yetser towb), the good principle.
2. The wicked perfect are those,
a. Who never repent.
b. They receive their portion in this life, because they can have none in the life to come, and are under the influence of (yetser hara±), the evil principle.
3. The intermediate are those who are influenced partly by the evil principle, and partly by the good.-See Schoettgen.
(from Adam Clarke's Commentary, Electronic Database. Copyright © 1996, 2003, 2005, 2006 by Biblesoft, Inc. All rights reserved.)
In the Greek of the New Testament, there are scriptures that identify 3 levels of believers. The babe, the teenager and the adult. In the scriptural text of Hebrews 12:23 the "must men made perfect" signifies this man as being one of the "JUST PERFECT" which means he is mature and has gained the development of an "adult believer." The "GOOD PRINCIPLE" has taken the place of the "EVIL PRINCIPLE" in his being and he is in a place of development where he is separate from the General Assembly. However, this man is still "not made perfect" concerning the universal salvation that God has prepared for all creation to come into. He is amongst the cloud of witnesses, the cheering section of the heavenly Ecclesia, the Church of the Firstborn, which are in heaven and filled with anticipation for the final leg of the race to cross the finish line. This is the "TELEIOS" man, complete and unwavering in the hope of Christ and the end of his salvation. These are the watchmen on the walls, guardians of the mysteries of the Gospel, those heavenly spirits of just men that have and always will be ministering to the saints to strengthen them and stand for them against the wiles of the enemy. Again, they are not Angels in the sense that the religious artists and sculptures have portrayed them to be, but they are those of the faith, of the testimony of Jesus Christ and co-laborers with us.
17 And there came one of the seven angels which had the seven vials, and talked with me, saying unto me, Come hither; I will shew unto thee the judgment of the great whore that sitteth upon many waters: KJV
9 And he saith unto me, Write, Blessed are they which are called unto the marriage supper of the Lamb. And he saith unto me, These are the true sayings of God.
10 And I fell at his feet to worship him. And he said unto me, See thou do it not: I am thy fellowservant, and of thy brethren that have the testimony of Jesus: worship God: for the testimony of Jesus is the spirit of prophecy.
John was introduced to one of the seven messengers that had the seven vials of God's judgments and was taken "hither" by this messenger to see the fall of Babylon and afterwards the grand scene of great exultations unto God from many peoples in heaven, crying out praises and glorifications because of the demise of the Babylonian System. John sees so many scenes of great symbolical characters and events that it leaves him in a state of wonder and awe. In this state, John feels the need to worship and in front of him is the spectacular messenger with whom John has been taken through this panorama of judgment and justification, so his natural inclination is to fall on his knees and begin to worship such a mighty being. But the rebuke comes swiftly and bluntly, "See you do it not! I am your fellowservant, and of your brethren that have the testimony of Jesus!" Oh my! Can you imagine it dear saints of the Lord? This is not a winged creature that never walked the earth with a soul, but this mighty being was a MAN! A GLORIFIED MAN, but of the testimony of Jesus. He identifies himself as equal with John in serving the Lord Jesus Christ, as a FELLOWSERVANT and equal with all of John's brethren that have given witness to the redeeming grace of the Lord Jesus. He then reveals to John that this testimony, that Jesus Christ is the Lord of lords and the King of kings and the Savior of the world, is the very SPIRIT OF PROPHECY that has been issuing forth from the very first verse of this tremendous book, the Revealing Of Jesus Christ and I must tell you now that this great revealing of Jesus Christ is in only one place dear one and that place is in our hearts! Jesus is not going to be revealed in the sky, or on a mountain top, or in a religious city in a far off land, He is being revealed in the hearts of men! So it is that the writer of the Book of Hebrews is telling us that we have come into the midst of a company of men, that are identified as SPIRIT, of the testimony of Jesus, the Christ of God.
We have so much more to learn about the spiritual places we are being ushered into by the hand of God in this hour. We cannot stay carnal and soulish in this place of wonders and dealings. We must not bring the religious behaviors and elements of Babylon into this realm of light and glory, as it would be an abomination to bring those dead, corruptible elements into this Holiest of holies. We must let go of all that we have been and become that for which we have been ordained and predestined to be. Oh God, put your coal of fire to our mouth and let your curious and wondrous works continue in our lives. Make us servants of your will and purpose. I pray that each reader of this letter will feel the power of the Holy Ghost moving upon them and may their fears and torments be removed from their walk in You. Give us the Voice of the Resurrection, so that all that hear Your Voice will live. Heal our bodies and our hearts in the Day of your great appearing and give us strength to run the race set before us. Give my kinsmen faith today and help our unbelief. Draw us Oh Lord, ever further from the shore of our earthly constitution and restore us to our former estate and condition we had with you before the disruptions of the ages. Give us patience in our time of testing and proving as we realize more with each passing order, You are the Potter, we are the clay. Mold us and make us vessels of honor that bring glory and majesty to your name. Be pleased with us, Lord. Here we are, such as we are, creatures of your own making. Give to us your New Song and may we sing it in the land of the living! Lift up the hands of the weary and discouraged as you give to them new hope and vision. Fill our days with salvation and redemption. We bow before you, surrendered and humbled, in awe of all that you are revealing to us today. Let us not be only hearers and readers of your Logos today, but may we be DOERS of your Divine Purpose in the earth. So be it!
To be continued:
By Robert D Torango